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Information About Psychtropic Drugs

What is Librium?
GENERIC NAME: Chlordiazepoxide
BRAND NAMES: Librium

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LIBRIUM is a chemical substance that crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, resulting in changes in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, and behavior. Librium also produces a range of physical side effects, as well as undesirable mental and physical manifestations when being discontinued. Because of these, Librium can be addictive. For information on how to to safely break the dependency on Librium or discontinue it under medical supervision, click here. For information on your rights if you or a family member is being urged to take Librium, click here.

DRUG WARNINGS

Specific Librium Warnings and Precautions
Some of the warnings and precautions to be aware of prior to taking Librium include the following:

Librium is a controlled substance, which means that it has the potential to be abused. There are special rules and regulations for prescribing and dispensing Librium. Librium is generally not recommended for people with a history of alcohol or drug abuse.

Like all benzodiazepines, Librium can cause psychological and physical dependence. The risk of abuse and dependence is greater for those taking high Librium doses for long periods of time (more than a few weeks). Because Librium can cause dependence, you should not stop taking Librium suddenly without first discussing it with your healthcare provider.

Librium can cause severe drowsiness and difficulty breathing, which may be life threatening. This risk is increased when Librium is combined with alcohol, narcotics, or other medications or substances that cause drowsiness and sedation. You should not drive or operate heavy machinery until you know how Librium will affect you.

Librium may cause depression and can make preexisting depression worse. Make sure your healthcare provider knows if you are depressed or have a history of depression before taking Librium.

Elderly people are more sensitive to the effects of Librium and may need to start the medication at a low dosage. Librium may increase the risk of falling, which is especially dangerous in elderly people (who often have weak or brittle bones).

Sometimes, people react to Librium in a way opposite of what is usually expected. That is, they may become agitated, aggressive, and restless, and may have difficulty sleeping. Tell your healthcare provider if you experience these effects. Children may be more likely to experience these unusual reactions to Librium.

Let your healthcare provider know if you have liver or kidney disease, as your body may not handle Librium as well as it should.

Librium is considered a pregnancy Category D medication. This means that it is probably not safe for use during pregnancy. Talk to your healthcare provider about the risks and benefits of using the drug during pregnancy.

It is not known if Librium passes through breast milk. Therefore, if you are breastfeeding or plan to start breastfeeding, discuss this with your healthcare provider prior to taking the drug.

LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Fainting
Loss of consciousness caused by a temporary lack of oxygen to the brain.

LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Mental

Changes in Mood or Mental changes


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Unsteadyness

Not firm, solid, or securely in place; not firm or stable; shaky.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Tremors

A trembling or shaking usually from physical weakness.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Dizziness

Refers to an impairment in spatial perception and stability.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Balance Disorder

Loss of ability to maintain bodily equilibrium.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Uncontrolled movements

Uncontrolled or slow movement is defined as a problem with muscle tone, usually in large muscle groups, that leads to slow involuntary contractions of the head, limbs, trunk, or neck.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Drooling

To let saliva flow from one's mouth; drivel; to flow from the mouth, as saliva.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Rigid/stiff muscles

Stiff or unyielding; not pliant or flexible muscles.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Lack of Coordination

Lack of coordination between muscles that causes unsteadiness in body.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Muscle cramps

A sudden intermittent pain in almost any part of the body.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Convulsion

A medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Slurred speech

Abnormal speech in which words are not enunciated clearly or completely but are run together or partially eliminated.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Restlessness

Marked by a lack of quiet, repose, or rest.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Sleep Disturbances

Any condition that interferes with sleep.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Fatigue

Physical or mental weariness.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Loss of Consciousness

Unconsciousness, more appropriately referred to as loss of consciousness or lack of consciousness, is a dramatic alteration of mental state that involves complete or near-complete lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimuli.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Rash

A group of spots or red, inflamed skin.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Chills

Feelings of coldness accompanied by shivering.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Fever

Abnormally high body temperature.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Itching

An irritating skin sensation causing a desire to scratch.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Blisters

Local swellings of the skin that contains watery fluid and is caused by burning or irritation.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Bruising

Unusual Bruising (To injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of (part of the body) without breaking the skin, as by a blow) or bleeding.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Jaundice

Yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Headache

A pain located in the head, as over the eyes, at the temples, or at the base of the skull.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Stomach pain

An ache localized in the stomach or abdominal region.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Sore throat

A painful or sensitive condition of the throat exaggerated by swallowing or talking.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Cough

To expel air from the lungs suddenly and noisily, often to keep the respiratory passages free of irritating material.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Nausea

A feeling of sickness in the stomach characterized by an urge to vomit.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Vomiting

To eject part or all of the contents of the stomach through the mouth, usually in a series of involuntary movements.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Back pain or Side pain

Pain in the lower back or side.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Mouth Sores

Sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Swelling

Something swollen; esp., an abnormally swollen part of the body.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Sweating

To excrete perspiration through the pores in the skin; perspire.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Painful urination

Urination that is painful or difficult.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Constipation

Constipation is a decrease in the frequency of stool.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Urine discoloration

Dark Urine.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Vomiting of blood

Throwing up blood.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Menstrual changes

Any changes in menstrual flow.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Loss of appetite

When you have a reduced desire to eat.


LIBRIUM SIDE EFFECT: Bad breath

Unpleasant breath odor.

LIBRIUM CLINICAL TRIALS

Timing of Efficacy of Thiamine in Wernicke's Disease in Alcoholics at Risk.
Talbot PA., J Correct Health Care. 2011 Jan;17(1):46-50., Librium: 21278319 [Librium - in process], Related citations

Effects of chlordiazepoxide on runway behaviours of C57Bl/6 mice under continuous or partial reinforcement.
Norwood K, McGovern SF, Kennedy PJ, Shaw D, Leslie JC., Behav Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print], Librium: 21263313 [Librium - as supplied by publisher], Related citations

Alcohol withdrawal during hospitalization.
Keys VA., Am J Nurs. 2011 Jan;111(1):40-4; quiz 45-6., Librium: 21191232 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Vogel conflict test: sex differences and pharmacological validation of the model.
Basso AM, Gallagher KB, Mikusa JP, Rueter LE., Behav Brain Res. 2011 Mar 17;218(1):174-83. Epub 2010 Nov 27., Librium: 21115068 [Librium - in process], Related citations

The neurokinin NK2 antagonist, saredutant, ameliorates stress-induced conditions without impairing cognition.
Rogacki N, Lopez-Grancha M, Naimoli V, Potestio L, Stevens RJ, Pichat P, Bergis OE, Cohen C, Varty GB, Griebel G., Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print], Librium: 21115031 [Librium - as supplied by publisher], Related citations

The effect of Echinacea preparations in three laboratory tests of anxiety: comparison with chlordiazepoxide.
Haller J, Hohmann J, Freund TF., Phytother Res. 2010 Nov;24(11):1605-13. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3181., Librium: 21031616 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Rapid ultraviolet monitoring of multiple psychotropic drugs with a renewable microfluidic device.
Sheng J, Lei J, Ju H, Song C, Zhang D., Anal Chim Acta. 2010 Oct 29;679(1-2):1-6. Epub 2010 Aug 21., Librium: 20951851 [Librium - in process], Related citations

The effects of pentylenetetrazol, chlordiazepoxide and caffeine in rats tested in the elevated plus-maze depend on the experimental illumination.
Garcia AM, Cardenas FP, Morato S., Behav Brain Res. 2011 Feb 2;217(1):171-7. Epub 2010 Oct 7., Librium: 20933019 [Librium - in process]
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Validated HPLC determination of the two fixed dose combinations (chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and mebeverine hydrochloride; carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide) in their tablets.
Haggag RS, Shaalan RA, Belal TS., J AOAC Int. 2010 Jul-Aug;93(4):1192-200.
Librium: 20922951 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Reduction of fear-potentiated startle by benzodiazepines in C57BL/6J mice.
Smith KS, Meloni EG, Myers KM, Van't Veer A, Carlezon WA Jr, Rudolph U.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Feb;213(4):697-706. Epub 2010 Oct 5.
Librium: 20922362 [Librium - in process], Related citations

A prospective, randomized, trial of phenobarbital versus benzodiazepines for acute alcohol withdrawal.
Hendey GW, Dery RA, Barnes RL, Snowden B, Mentler P., Am J Emerg Med. 2010 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print], Librium: 20825805 [Librium - as supplied by publisher], Related citations

Absence of repeated-trial tolerance to the anxiolytic-like effects of chlordiazepoxide in the rat triple test.
Wehrmeister TD, Izídio GS, Pereira E, Izídio G, Ramos A., Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Dec;97(2):301-9. Epub 2010 Sep 9., Librium: 20817009 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of chlordiazepoxide and clidinium using multivariate calibration techniques.
Khoshayand MR, Abdollahi H, Moeini A, Shamsaie A, Ghaffari A, Abbasian S.
Drug Test Anal. 2010 Sep;2(9):430-5., Librium: 20812297 [Librium - in process], Related citations

Diagnostics and therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: focus on delirium tremens and withdrawal seizure.
Lutz UC, Batra A., Psychiatr Prax. 2010 Sep;37(6):271-8. Epub 2010 Aug 27. Review. German., Librium: 20803410 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Anxioselective profile of glycineB receptor partial agonist, D-cycloserine, in plus-maze-naïve but not plus-maze-experienced mice.
Rodgers RJ, Howard K, Stewart S, Waring P, Wright FL., Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Nov 10;646(1-3):31-7. Epub 2010 Aug 18., Librium: 20727880 [Librium - in process], Related citations

A validated method for simultaneous screening and quantification of twenty-three benzodiazepines and metabolites plus zopiclone and zaleplone in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry.
Simonsen KW, Hermansson S, Steentoft A, Linnet K., J Anal Toxicol. 2010;34(6):332-41., Librium: 20663286 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Collaborative study on fifteen compounds in the rat-liver Comet assay integrated into 2- and 4-week repeat-dose studies.
Rothfuss A, O'Donovan M, De Boeck M, Brault D, Czich A, Custer L, Hamada S, Plappert-Helbig U, Hayashi M, Howe J, Kraynak AR, van der Leede BJ, Nakajima M, Priestley C, Thybaud V, Saigo K, Sawant S, Shi J, Storer R, Struwe M, Vock E, Galloway S., Mutat Res. 2010 Sep 30;702(1):40-69. Epub 2010 Jul 23., Librium: 20656055 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in pharmaceutical preparations by spectrophotometric, RP-HPLC, and HPTLC methods.
Patel SK, Patel NJ., J AOAC Int. 2010 May-Jun;93(3):904-10., Librium: 20629393 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Generalized Kramers-Heisenberg expressions for stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon absorption.
Roslyak O, Marx CA, Mukamel S., Phys Rev A. 2009 Jun 18;79(6):638271-6382712., Librium: 20613889 [Librium]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Dependence on the Brazilian diet pill: a case report.
Smith BR, Cohen PA., Am J Addict. 2010 May;19(3):291-2. No abstract available., Librium: 20525038 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Zebrafish Behavior in Novel Environments: Effects of Acute Exposure to Anxiolytic Compounds and Choice of Danio rerio Line.
Sackerman J, Donegan JJ, Cunningham CS, Nguyen NN, Lawless K, Long A, Benno RH, Gould GG., Int J Comp Psychol. 2010 Jan 1;23(1):43-61., Librium: 20523756 [Librium]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Simultaneous RP-HPLC Estimation of Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride and Chlordiazepoxide in Tablet Dosage Forms.
Patel SK, Patel NJ., Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Sep;71(5):545-7., Librium: 20502574 [Librium - in process]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Spectrophotometric and chromatographic simultaneous estimation of amitriptyline hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in tablet dosage forms.
Patel S, Patel NJ., Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul;71(4):472-6., Librium: 20502562 [Librium - in process]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of imipramine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in tablets.
Patel S, Patel NJ, Patel SA., Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul;71(4):468-72., Librium: 20502561 [Librium - in process]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

A new method for the simultaneous determination of 1,4-benzodiazepines and amfepramone as adulterants in phytotherapeutic formulations by voltammetry.
de Carvalho LM, Correia D, Garcia SC, de Bairros AV, do Nascimento PC, Bohrer D., Forensic Sci Int. 2010 Oct 10;202(1-3):75-81. Epub 2010 May 15.
Librium: 20472377 [Librium], Related citations

GABAA receptor signaling in caudal periaqueductal gray regulates maternal aggression and maternal care in mice.
Lee G, Gammie SC., Behav Brain Res. 2010 Dec 1;213(2):230-7. Epub 2010 May 8., Librium: 20457185 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Assessing anxiolytic-like effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors using the elevated plus maze in mice.
Takeuchi T, Owa T, Nishino T, Kamei C., Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;32(2):113-21., Librium: 20401348 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.
Minozzi S, Amato L, Vecchi S, Davoli M., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Mar 17;(3):CD005064. Review., Librium: 20238337 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal.
Amato L, Minozzi S, Vecchi S, Davoli M., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Mar 17;(3):CD005063. Review., Librium: 20238336 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Angiotensin IV elevates oxytocin levels in the rat amygdala and produces anxiolytic-like activity through subsequent oxytocin receptor activation.
Beyer CE, Dwyer JM, Platt BJ, Neal S, Luo B, Ling HP, Lin Q, Mark RJ, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, Schechter LE., Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 May;209(4):303-11. Epub 2010 Mar 12., Librium: 20224888 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of clidinium bromide and chlordiazepoxide in combined dosage forms.
Pathak A, Rai P, Rajput SJ., J Chromatogr Sci. 2010 Mar;48(3):235-9.
Librium: 20223092 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Alcohol withdrawal: development of a standing order set.
Riddle E, Bush J, Tittle M, Dilkhush D., Crit Care Nurse. 2010 Jun;30(3):38-47; quiz 48. Epub 2010 Mar 1. No abstract available., Librium: 20194571 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Development and validation of an EI-GC-MS method for the determination of benzodiazepine drugs and their metabolites in blood: applications in clinical and forensic toxicology.
Papoutsis II, Athanaselis SA, Nikolaou PD, Pistos CM, Spiliopoulou CA, Maravelias CP., J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Aug 1;52(4):609-14. Epub 2010 Feb 1., Librium: 20172681 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Anxiolytic-like property of risperidone and olanzapine as examined in multiple measures of fear in rats.
Sun T, He W, Hu G, Li M., Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 May;95(3):298-307. Epub 2010 Feb 16., Librium: 20167232 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Comparison of the predictive validity of the mirror chamber and elevated plus maze tests in mice.
Paterson NE, Iwunze M, Davis SF, Malekiani SA, Hanania T., J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Apr 30;188(1):62-70. Epub 2010 Feb 10., Librium: 20149823 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

MRK-409 (MK-0343), a GABAA receptor subtype-selective partial agonist, is a non-sedating anxiolytic in preclinical species but causes sedation in humans.
Atack J, Wafford KA, Street LJ, Dawson GR, Tye S, Van Laere K, Bormans G, Sanabria-Bohórquez SM, Delepeleire I, De Hooon JN, Van Hecken A, Burns HD, McKernan RM, Murphy MG, Hargreaves RJ., J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print], Librium: 20147571 [Librium - as supplied by publisher], Related citations

Scototaxis as anxiety-like behavior in fish.
Maximino C, Marques de Brito T, Dias CA, Gouveia A Jr, Morato S., Nat Protoc. 2010;5(2):209-16. Epub 2010 Jan 14., Librium: 20134420 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Benzodiazepines medazepam and midazolam are activators of pregnane X receptor and weak inducers of CYP3A4: investigation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cell lines.
Vrzal R, Kubesova K, Pavek P, Dvorak Z., Toxicol Lett. 2010 Mar 15;193(2):183-8. Epub 2010 Jan 18., Librium: 20080160 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Simultaneous determination and quantification of 12 benzodiazepines in serum or whole blood using UPLC/MS/MS.
Gunn J, Kriger S, Terrell AR., Methods Mol Biol. 2010;603:107-19., Librium: 20077063 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

The rapid hydrolysis of chlordiazepoxide to demoxepam may affect the outcome of chronic osmotic minipump studies.
Vinkers CH, Korte-Bouws GA, Sastre Toraño J, Mirza NR, Nielsen EO, Ahring PK, de Jong GJ, Olivier B., Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print], Librium: 20066402 [Librium - as supplied by publisher]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from theManchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: chlordiazepoxide, the management of alcohol withdrawal and the kindling effect.
Pius C, Maloba M., Emerg Med J. 2010 Jan;27(1):56-7. No abstract available.
Librium: 20029013 [Librium - in process], Related citations

The modified Geller-Seifter test in rats was insensitive to GABAB receptor positive modulation or blockade, or 5-HT1A receptor activation.
Paterson NE, Hanania T., Behav Brain Res. 2010 Mar 17;208(1):258-64. Epub 2009 Dec 16., Librium: 20006648 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Septal co-infusions of glucose with the benzodiazepine agonist chlordiazepoxide impair memory, but co-infusions of glucose with the opiate morphine do not.
Krebs-Kraft DL, Parent MB., Physiol Behav. 2010 Mar 30;99(4):438-44. Epub 2009 Dec 22., Librium: 20005883 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Differential effects of acute and repeated citalopram in mouse models of anxiety and depression.
Mombereau C, Gur TL, Onksen J, Blendy JA., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Apr;13(3):321-34. Epub 2009 Dec 14., Librium: 20003619 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

GABA(A) receptor signaling in the lateral septum regulates maternal aggression in mice.
Lee G, Gammie SC., Behav Neurosci. 2009 Dec;123(6):1169-77., Librium: 20001101 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text
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Effect of various antiepileptic drugs in a pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure model in mice.
Akula KK, Dhir A, Kulkarni SK., Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Sep;31(7):423-32., Librium: 19907717 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Pharmacological alterations of anxious behaviour in mice depending on both strain and the behavioural situation.
Clément Y, Le Guisquet AM, Venault P, Chapouthier G, Belzung C., PLoS One. 2009 Nov 11;4(11):e7745., Librium: 19907641 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Excitation of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
Ishibashi H, Nakahata Y, Eto K, Nabekura J., J Physiol. 2009 Dec 1;587(Pt 23):5709-22. Epub 2009 Oct 19., Librium: 19840999 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

In vitro cytotoxicity study of oxaziridines generated after chlordiazepoxide, demoxepam, and desmethylchlordiazepoxide UV irradiation.
Ouédraogo M, De Maesschalck E, Soentjens-Werts V, Dubois J., Drug Chem Toxicol. 2009;32(4):417-23., Librium: 19793035 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Effects of chlordiazepoxide on predator odor-induced reductions of playfulness in juvenile rats.
Siviy SM, Steets CL, DeBrouse LM., Behav Brain Res. 2010 Jan 20;206(2):254-62. Epub 2009 Sep 18., Librium: 19766677 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

The effect of mGlu8 deficiency in animal models of psychiatric diseases.
Fendt M, Bürki H, Imobersteg S, van der Putten H, McAllister K, Leslie JC, Shaw D, Hölscher C., Genes Brain Behav. 2010 Feb;9(1):33-44. Epub 2009 Aug 8.
Librium: 19740090 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice injected with GABA- and 5HT-anxiolytic agents.
Lalonde R, Strazielle C., Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;24(3):365-76. Epub 2009 Sep 3., Librium: 19735300 [Librium - in process], Related citations

Examination of reinforcement magnitude on the pharmacological disruption of fixed-ratio performance.
Pinkston JW, Ginsburg BC, Lamb RJ., Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Aug;17(4):237-46., Librium: 19653789 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam effects in a zebrafish model of anxiety.
Bencan Z, Sledge D, Levin ED., Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Nov;94(1):75-80. Epub 2009 Jul 28., Librium: 19643124 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Selective effects of benzodiazepines on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion compared to attenuation of neophobia in C57BL/6 mice.
Callaerts-Vegh Z, Hoyer D, Kelly PH., Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Oct;206(3):389-401. Epub 2009 Jul 22., Librium: 19626313 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Novel environment and GABA agonists alter event-related potentials in N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 hypomorphic and wild-type mice.
Bodarky CL, Halene TB, Ehrlichman RS, Banerjee A, Ray R, Hahn CG, Jonak G, Siegel SJ., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Oct;331(1):308-18. Epub 2009 Jul 14., Librium: 19602553 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Social reactions to Valium and Prozac: a cultural lag perspective of drug diffusion and adoption.
Marshall KP, Georgievskava Z, Georgievsky I., Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009 Jun;5(2):94-107. Epub 2009 Jan 31. Review., Librium: 19524858 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Case report of dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy in a patient on a ketogenic diet.
Matsuura K, Morimoto Y, Sugimura M, Taki K, Maeda M, Niwa H., Masui. 2009 Jun;58(6):762-4. Japanese., Librium: 19522273 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Pharmacological characterization of harmaline-induced tremor activity in mice.
Paterson NE, Malekiani SA, Foreman MM, Olivier B, Hanania T., Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Aug 15;616(1-3):73-80. Epub 2009 Jun 2., Librium: 19497322 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Distinct profiles of anxiety and dysphoria during spontaneous withdrawal from acute morphine exposure.
Rothwell PE, Thomas MJ, Gewirtz JC., Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Sep;34(10):2285-95. Epub 2009 Jun 3., Librium: 19494807 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

Accidental acute clidinium toxicity.
Richardson SE, Edwards K., Emerg Med J. 2009 Jun;26(6):460., Librium: 19465630 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

A novel operant conflict procedure using incrementing shock intensities to assess the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs.
Evenden J, Ross L, Jonak G, Zhou J., Behav Pharmacol. 2009 May;20(3):226-36., Librium: 19455771 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Anxiolytics antagonize yohimbine-induced central noradrenergic activity: a concomitant in vivo voltammetry-electrophysiology model of anxiety.
Crespi F., J Neurosci Methods. 2009 May 30;180(1):97-105. Epub 2009 Mar 21., Librium: 19427535 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Clavulanic acid: a competitive inhibitor of beta-lactamases with novel anxiolytic-like activity and minimal side effects.
Kim DJ, King JA, Zuccarelli L, Ferris CF, Koppel GA, Snowdon CT, Ahn CH.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Aug;93(2):112-20. Epub 2009 Apr 24.
Librium: 19394358 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in models of depression and anxiety.
Gundersen BB, Blendy JA., Neuropharmacology. 2009 Jul;57(1):67-74. Epub 2009 Apr 23., Librium: 19393671 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text, Related citations

A randomized, double-blind comparison of lorazepam and chlordiazepoxide in patients with uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal.
Kumar CN, Andrade C, Murthy P., J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2009 May;70(3):467-74., Librium: 19371497 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE], Related citations

Excitation of histaminergic tuberomamillary neurons by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
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Librium: 19259645 [Librium - indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC ArticleFree text
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